Near the Danube River, about 22 km from the town of Gulyantsi, Pleven, lies the ancient city of Ulpia Eskus. The Roman city was built in the 1st century BC. as heir to a Thracian settlement. Around it was later built the camp of the Fifth Macedonian Legion.
The military camp was given the status of a colony after the glorious victory of Emperor Mark Ulli Traian (98-117) over the Dacians. On the occasion of the victory, Ulpia Eskus was declared a city with its own management. The Roman city became an important crossroads, and it was a blooming experience during the II – III c., When the central city part was built, Ulpia Eskus is built in the typical Roman way – it has a rectangular shape and the streets are east-west and north-south. Visitors today can see remnants of streets, temples, a large civilian basilica. The total area of the town was about 280 acres.
The city is in its heyday and during the IV century under the rule of Emperor Constantine the Great (307 – 337). Then capital of the Roman Empire became Constantinople and the River Danube has built a large stone bridge, the opening of which on July 5, the 328th emperor comes personally.
The first excavations of the ancient city were held in 1904 -1905 was later, in 1947 – 1951, the archaeologists discovered a large public building and in one of the rooms she found one of the best Roman colourful mosaics on Bulgarian lands. In the central part is depicted a scene from the comedy “Ahei”. The mosaic is restored and preserved and can be seen today at the Regional Museum of History in Pleven. During the excavation, another forum complex, temples of the Capitol Trinity (Jupiter, Juno, Minerva), a large basilica, public buildings, bathrooms, etc. were found.
The ancient city is part of the objects of the Regional Museum of History – Pleven, so some of the finds found in Ulpia Eskus are displayed in a specially separated hall of the museum.
With number 88 of the State Gazette of 1965, the Roman city was declared an architectural and cultural monument of culture from Antiquity and the Middle Ages with a category of national importance. In 2011, in State Gazette 104, Ulpia Eskus received the status of an archaeological reserve.